Nursery

Foundation Nurseries

Our foundation nurseries are spread over different locations (2 x Riviersonderend, Greyton, 2 x Montagu, 2 x Wellington).

They are Responsible for the multiplication and production of certified, contracted trees and vines for nucleus, foundation, mother, mother- and scion blocks, evaluation including semi commercial, commercial and rootstock blocks according to the rules and regulations of the South African Plant improvement Act (no. 53 of 1976) and Plant Certification scheme (1976).

Riviersonderend, Greyton and Montagu nursery premises are mainly for pome and stone fruit tree propagation and Wellington premises for vine propagation.

SAPO Trust has contracts with several commercial nurseries for propagation of pome and stone fruit trees as well as raisins, table and wine grape vines

Rootstocks

Apples :: Pome Fruit

Apples

Pome Fruit

Variety

Vigor (% of standard)

Characteristics

Utilization of Rootstock

General comments

MM109

100 - 110%

Precocious and high production

Wide adaptability
Low to medium potential soils and warmer areas

Recommended for spur type - poor soils and replant sites

M25

80 - 100%

Very precocious and high production

Low to medium potential soils

Good tree structure for light penetration
Recommended for medium to poor soils and replant sites
Can get collar rot in poorly drained soils
Collar rot is controllable with chemical treatment

M793

80 - 90%

Precocious and high production

Wide adaptability

Recommended for a wide range of soils and varieties

MM106

60 - 70%

Very precocious and high production

Medium to high potential soils

Produces flat crotch angles
Give good fruit size
Can get collar rot in poorly drained soils
Collar rot is controllable with chemical treatment

M7

60%

Precocious and high production

Wide adaptability
Not for spur types

Resistant to collar rot
Produce flat crotch angles

M26

40 - 50%

Precocious and high production

High potential soils and colder climates

Produces burr knots
Sunburn can be a problem in weak growing conditions

M9

30%

Very precocious and high production

High potential soils - colder climates and vigorous

Produces flat crotch angles and large fruit
Can give sunburn in weak growing conditions varieties

APPLES - GENEVA ROOTSTOCKS

Apple rootstocks currently available to the SA apple industry have various shortcomings. Disadvantages include excess vigour, low yield efficiency, lack of precocity, poor adaptability, and high susceptibility to pests and diseases. Recent studies have found some of the Geneva® rootstocks to be significantly more yield efficient and precocious than standard rootstocks.

HORTGRO Science currently has four rootstock evaluation sites with a ‘more dwarfing’ and an adjacent ‘more vigorous’ planting at each site. Rosy Glow trees were planted at Paardekloof in the Witzenberg Valley in 2010, while Fuji trees were planted at Helderwater in the Langkloof, Oakvalley Estate and Breëvlei (both Grabouw) in 2013. 

 

 

Horticultural characteristics of promising Geneva® selections to be commercialised in the next couple of years:

 

 

Pears :: Pome Fruit

Variety

Vigor (% of standard)

Characteristics

Utilization of Rootstock

General comments

**BP3

100%

Precocious and high production

Wide adaptation
Good on low potential soils
Cold and warm areas

Tolerant to apple stem grooving and apple clorotic leaf spot viruses.
Recommended for less vigorous and red varieties

**BP1

60 80%

Precocious and high production

Medium to high potential soils and colder areas

Tolerant to apple stem grooving and apple clorotic leaf spot viruses.
Recommended for vigorous and bi-color varieties
Require spur pruning in hot climates

Quince A

50 - 60%

Very precocious and high production

Medium to high potential soils

Recommended for vigorous and bi-colour varieties.
Only compatible with Beurre Hardy and Comice.
Needs an interstem for other varieties

Quince C51

40 - 60%

Very precocious and high

High potential soils

Compatibility like Quince A.
Recommended for production vigorous and bi-colour varieties.

Stone Fruit

Rootstock Compatibility Growth Fertility Recommended Soil Types Characteristics

Apricot seedling

Apricots

Very vigorous

 

Fertile

For all good drained soils

Sensitive to wet soils. 
Does well in Klein-Karoo scale soils.

Flordaguard Clonal

Peaches
Nectarines
Plums
possibly Apricots

Vigorous

Much more fertile
than Kakamas seedling as recommended for soil type.

For good drained soils

Released. 
Roots easier than Nemared. 
Resistant to root-knot nematode
Red leave rootstock sensitive for wet soils.

 

Guardian

Peaches
Nectarines
Plums 

Vigor much the same as Kakamas.

Not significantly better than Kakamas in sandy soils in low chill areas in terms of production and fruit size.

Sensitive for high PH soils

Guardian is a peach rootstock, imported from Clemson University in the united states. Guardian is reported to be tolerant to root-knot nematodes and not affected by ring nematodes. Guardian has a high tolerance to bacterial canker and replant soil.

GF 677 Clonal

Peaches
Nectarines
Plums
Almonds

More vigorous than Kakamas seedling

Much more fertile than Kakamas seedling

For good drained lime free grounds with high soil pH up to 7.8 (KCL).
Also for light drained sand soils.

Suitable for free-lime soils.
Forms no suckers.
More sensitive for wetness than Kakamas seedling.
Sensitive for nematode.
Open to cronegal.
Roots difficult.

Kakamas seedling

Peaches
Nectarines
Plums
Almonds

Vigorous

Fertile, but much
less so than GF 677 and SAPO 778

For all good drained soils

Every rootstock differs in genetics because of the seedling effect.
Sensitive for nematode, wet conditions, lime free and open to cronegal.

SAPO 778 Clonal

Peaches
Nectarines
plums
Vigorous. In most
ways the same as Kakamas seedling
Much more fertile
than Kakamas seedling
For all soils with pH lower than 6.0 (KCL).
Survive better in wet grounds than Kakamas seedling

Induce bigger fruit than
Kakamas seedling. 
Not compatible for apricots. 
Sensitive for lime free grounds. 
Less sensitive for nematode than GF 677.

Viking Clonal

Peaches
Nectarines 
Plums
Vigor the same as SAPO 778 Higher than 
Kakamas seedling
For high and low pH soils.
Survive better in wet soils than the Kakamas seedling. 
 Much higher production in lime free soils than Kakamas seedling
Released. 
Rooting easier than SAPO 778. 
Nematode resistance is being tested.

Vines

101-14

It performs well on a wider soil spectrum than Richter 110 and the soils on which it is used may be relatively shallower. 101-14 can be used on shale and granite-like structured soil and shallow, wet soils. Resistance to wet conditions : very good. Poor resistance to lime.

143 B

This rootstock which is well adapted to heavy, wet pot-clay soils that are shallow and have poor internal drainage buds exceptionally early. Growth arrestment in Sultanina is much less common if it is grafted on 143 B. Vigour: very good to exceptional.

Freedom

This high vigour rootstock is recommended for medium potential sandy/loam soils under irrigation where nematodes are present.  Freedom is highly resistant to root knot and dagger nematodes but susceptible to ring nematodes.

Harmony

This rootstock has medium to strong vigour, similar to that of Richter 110. It has a medium to high resistance to root knot nematodes and a medium to low resistance to dagger and root lesion nematodes. It can tolerate excess moisture, drought and brackish soils and is best suited to high potential soils under irrigation without physical or chemical limitations.

Paulsen

This rootstock is recommended on relatively deep, well drained soils (60-90cm) that have good moisture-holding properties. Outside Italy, where Paulsen is widely planted, it also enjoys great popularity in North Africa and Southern France which climatologically resemble South Africa. Wet resistance : very good if phytophthora is absent. Drought resistance : very good to excellent. Lime resistance : Fairly good. Better than Richter 110, but poorer than Ruggeri. Phylloxera resistance : very good to excellent.

Ramsey

The rootstock is recommended on relatively deep sandy soils under irrigation, particularly where nematodes are present. Due to excessive vegetative growth, the rootstock is not recommended on deep, fertile soils under irrigation since these leads to poor fruit-set and sterile winter buds. In most cases large training systems must be provided if Ramsey is used as rootstock.

Richter 99

The rootstock is especially recommended for relatively deep soils (60-90cm) that are well drained and have good moisture-holding properties. Red and yellow structure less soils (Hutton, Clovelly) and dark-coloured soils (Oakleaf) as well as shale and granite soils (Glenrosa, Swartland, Sterkspruit) where drainage is not a problem, appear to be the most suitable for Richter99, the latter performs very well under South African conditions and is therefore very popular.

Richter 110

The rootstock is especially recommended for relatively deep soils (60-90cm) that are well drained and have good moisture-holding properties. Red and yellow structure less soils (Hutton, Clovelly) and dark-coloured soils (Oakleaf) as well as shale and granite soils (Glenrosa, Swartland, Sterkspruit) where drainage is not a problem, appear to be the most suitable for Richter99, the latter performs very well under South African conditions and is therefore very popular.
RS-3 This California bred rootstock has medium vigour and is suited to some high potential irrigated soils where nematodes are present. It is resistant to a wide spectrum of nematodes including dagger, root lesion, pin nematodes and root knot species. RS-3 is sensitive to wet and brackish soils.
RS-9 This California bred rootstock with medium to low vigour is well suited for high potential soils. The nematode resistance is similar to RS-3, but more susceptible to ring nematodes. This rootstock also shows more resistance to the California dagger nematodes (Xiphinema index).
US 8-7 This is a South-African bred rootstock with medium vigour. It is well suited to deep alluvial lime soils with available moisture in the deeper layers, where Ramsey would be too vigorous. US8-7 induces early ripening, has medium resistance to nematodes and brackish soils, and good resistance to Phytophtora root rot.