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Phytosanitary Plant Improvement

  • Establishment, management and maintenance of plant inprovement material (Nucleus, foundation, mother, evaluation and rootstocks blocks)
  • Testing for profiles of harmful viruses / pathogens
  • Selections against physical symptoms of bacterial diseases on stone and pome fruit
  • Virus elimination
  • Clone registrations

Genetic Plant Improvement

  • Selection of best quality plant material
  • True-to-type control
  • Quarantine inspections
  • Quarantine and nursery inspections

Propagation of Plant Material

  • Green wood and/or cartonage propagation
  • Propagation of winter wood
  • Distribution of certified plant material to nurseries
  • Propagation of vines and trees via nurseries
  • Registration of mother blocks
  • Propagation of rootstocks ( seeds, clonal and tissue culture)

Intellectual Property Management

  • Registration of plant breeders’ rights, trade marks and variety listing
  • Importation of plant material from abroad
  • Management of intellectual property (Contracts, collection of tree and production royalties and trade mark responsibilities)

Nursery Services

  • Supply rootstocks to nurseries
  • Propagate Phase 3 (semi-commercial) trees
  • Propagate trees for exclusive contracts
  • Propagate plant improvement trees and vines. ( Nucleus, foundation, evaluation, mother and scion block trees and vines)
  • Propagate commercial trees. (Not more than 4% of the total industry trees per annum)

Foundation Nurseries

Our foundation nurseries are spread over different locations (2 x Riviersonderend, Greyton, 2 x Montagu, 2 x Wellington).

They are Responsible for the multiplication and production of certified, contracted trees and vines for nucleus, foundation, mother, mother and scion blocks, evaluation including semi commercial, commercial and rootstock blocks according to the rules and regulations of the South African Plant improvement Act (no. 53 of 1976) and Plant Certification scheme (1976).

Riviersonderend, Greyton and Montagu nursery premises are mainly for pome and stone fruit tree propagation and Wellington premises for vine propagation.

SAPO Trust has contracts with several commercial nurseries for propagation of pome and stone fruit trees as well as raisins, table and wine grape vines.

Rootstocks

Variety Vigor (% of standard) Characteristics Utilization of Rootstock General comments
MM109 100 - 110% Precocious and high production Wide adaptability
Low to medium potential soils and warmer areas
Recommended for spur type - poor soils and replant sites
M25 80 - 100% Very precocious and high production Low to medium potential soils Good tree structure for light penetration
Recommended for medium to poor soils and replant sites
Can get collar rot in poorly drained soils
Collar rot is controllable with chemical treatment
M793 80 - 90% Precocious and high production Wide adaptability Recommended for a wide range of soils and varieties
MM106 60 - 70% Very precocious and high production Medium to high potential soils Produces flat crotch angles
Give good fruit size
Can get collar rot in poorly drained soils
Collar rot is controllable with chemical treatment
M7 60% Precocious and high production Wide adaptability
Not for spur types
Resistant to collar rot
Produce flat crotch angles
M26 40 - 50% Precocious and high production High potential soils and colder climates Produces burr knots
Sunburn can be a problem in weak growing conditions
M9 30% Very precocious and high production High potential soils - colder climates and vigorous Produces flat crotch angles and large fruit
Can give sunburn in weak growing conditions varieties
APPLES – GENEVA ROOTSTOCKS

Apple rootstocks currently available to the SA apple industry have various shortcomings. Disadvantages include excess vigour, low yield efficiency, lack of precocity, poor adaptability, and high susceptibility to pests and diseases. Recent studies have found some of the Geneva® rootstocks to be significantly more yield efficient and precocious than standard rootstocks.

HORTGRO Science currently has four rootstock evaluation sites with a ‘more dwarfing’ and an adjacent ‘more vigorous’ planting at each site. Rosy Glow trees were planted at Paardekloof in the Witzenberg Valley in 2010, while Fuji trees were planted at Helderwater in the Langkloof, Oakvalley Estate and Breëvlei (both Grabouw) in 2013.

Horticultural characteristics of promising Geneva® selections to be commercialised in the next couple of years:

Variety Vigor (% of standard) Characteristics Utilization of Rootstock General comments
**BP3 100% Precocious and high production Wide adaptation
Good on low potential soils
Cold and warm areas
Tolerant to apple stem grooving and apple clorotic leaf spot viruses.
Recommended for less vigorous and red varieties
**BP1 60 80% Precocious and high production Medium to high potential soils and colder areas Tolerant to apple stem grooving and apple clorotic leaf spot viruses.
Recommended for vigorous and bi-color varieties
Require spur pruning in hot climates
Quince A 50 - 60% Very precocious and high production Medium to high potential soils Recommended for vigorous and bi-colour varieties.
Only compatible with Beurre Hardy and Comice.
Needs an interstem for other varieties
Quince C51 40 - 60% Very precocious and high High potential soils Compatibility like Quince A.
Recommended for production vigorous and bi-colour varieties.
Rootstock Compatibility Growth Fertility Recommended Soil Types Characteristics
Apricot seedling Apricots Very vigorous Fertile For all good drained soils Sensitive to wet soils.
Does well in Klein-Karoo scale soils
Flordaguard Clonal Peaches
Nectarines
Plums
Possibly Apricots
Vigorous Much more fertile than Kakamas seedling as recommended for soil type For good drained soils Released.
Roots easier than Nemared.
Resistant to root-knot nematode.
Red leave rootstock sensitive for wet soils
Guardian Peaches
Nectarines
Plums
Vigor much the same as Kakamas Not significantly better than Kakamas in sandy soils in low chill areas in terms of production and fruit size Sensitive for high PH soils Guardian is a peach rootstock, imported from Clemson University in the united states. Guardian is reported to be tolerant to root-knot nematodes and not affected by ring nematodes. Guardian has a high tolerance to bacterial canker and replant soil
GF 677 Clonal Peaches
Nectarines
Plums
Almonds
More vigorous than Kakamas seedling Much more fertile than Kakamas seedling For good drained lime free grounds with high soil pH up to 7.8 (KCL).
Also for light drained sand soils
Suitable for free-lime soils.
Forms no suckers.
More sensitive for wetness than Kakamas seedling.
Sensitive for nematode.
Open to cronegal.
Roots difficult
Kakamas seedling Peaches
Nectarines
Plums
Almonds
Vigorous Fertile, but much less so than GF 677 and SAPO 778 For all good drained soils Every rootstock differs in genetics because of the seedling effect.
Sensitive for nematode, wet conditions, lime free and open to cronegal
SAPO 778 Clonal Peaches
Nectarines
Plums
Vigorous. In most ways the same as Kakamas seedling Much more fertile than Kakamas seedling For all soils with pH lower than 6.0 (KCL).
Survive better in wet grounds than Kakamas seedling
Induce bigger fruit than Kakamas seedling.
Not compatible for apricots.
Sensitive for lime free grounds.
Less sensitive for nematode than GF 677
Viking Clonal Peaches
Nectarines
Plums
Vigor the same as SAPO 778 Higher than Kakamas seedling For high and low pH soils.
Survive better in wet soils than the Kakamas seedling.
Much higher production in lime free soils than Kakamas seedling
Released.
Rooting easier than SAPO 778.
Nematode resistance is being tested
101-14 It performs well on a wider soil spectrum than Richter 110 and the soils on which it is used may be relatively shallower. 101-14 can be used on shale and granite-like structured soil and shallow, wet soils. Resistance to wet conditions : very good. Poor resistance to lime.
143 B This rootstock which is well adapted to heavy, wet pot-clay soils that are shallow and have poor internal drainage buds exceptionally early. Growth arrestment in Sultanina is much less common if it is grafted on 143 B. Vigour: very good to exceptional.
Freedom This high vigour rootstock is recommended for medium potential sandy/loam soils under irrigation where nematodes are present. Freedom is highly resistant to root knot and dagger nematodes but susceptible to ring nematodes.
Harmony This rootstock has medium to strong vigour, similar to that of Richter 110. It has a medium to high resistance to root knot nematodes and a medium to low resistance to dagger and root lesion nematodes. It can tolerate excess moisture, drought and brackish soils and is best suited to high potential soils under irrigation without physical or chemical limitations.
Paulsen This rootstock is recommended on relatively deep, well drained soils (60-90cm) that have good moisture-holding properties. Outside Italy, where Paulsen is widely planted, it also enjoys great popularity in North Africa and Southern France which climatologically resemble South Africa. Wet resistance : very good if phytophthora is absent. Drought resistance : very good to excellent. Lime resistance : Fairly good. Better than Richter 110, but poorer than Ruggeri. Phylloxera resistance : very good to excellent.
Ramsey The rootstock is recommended on relatively deep sandy soils under irrigation, particularly where nematodes are present. Due to excessive vegetative growth, the rootstock is not recommended on deep, fertile soils under irrigation since these leads to poor fruit-set and sterile winter buds. In most cases large training systems must be provided if Ramsey is used as rootstock.
Richter 99 The rootstock is especially recommended for relatively deep soils (60-90cm) that are well drained and have good moisture-holding properties. Red and yellow structure less soils (Hutton, Clovelly) and dark-coloured soils (Oakleaf) as well as shale and granite soils (Glenrosa, Swartland, Sterkspruit) where drainage is not a problem, appear to be the most suitable for Richter99, the latter performs very well under South African conditions and is therefore very popular.
Richter 110 The rootstock is especially recommended for relatively deep soils (60-90cm) that are well drained and have good moisture-holding properties. Red and yellow structure less soils (Hutton, Clovelly) and dark-coloured soils (Oakleaf) as well as shale and granite soils (Glenrosa, Swartland, Sterkspruit) where drainage is not a problem, appear to be the most suitable for Richter99, the latter performs very well under South African conditions and is therefore very popular.
RS-3 This California bred rootstock has medium vigour and is suited to some high potential irrigated soils where nematodes are present. It is resistant to a wide spectrum of nematodes including dagger, root lesion, pin nematodes and root knot species. RS-3 is sensitive to wet and brackish soils.
RS-9 This California bred rootstock with medium to low vigour is well suited for high potential soils. The nematode resistance is similar to RS-3, but more susceptible to ring nematodes. This rootstock also shows more resistance to the California dagger nematodes (Xiphinema index).
US 8-7 This is a South-African bred rootstock with medium vigour. It is well suited to deep alluvial lime soils with available moisture in the deeper layers, where Ramsey would be too vigorous. US8-7 induces early ripening, has medium resistance to nematodes and brackish soils, and good resistance to Phytophtora root rot.
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